LOGGING-ON: OCTOBER 2012

In this first issue of October, Logging-on examines an FPInnovations publication that covers the use of tethered equipment for steep slope logging. We look at a CRC for Forestry bulletin that investigated logging residues left infield after different harvesting operations. We introduce a new publication by the Virginia Cooperative Extension that provides an overview of logging in the state of Virginia. We include some of the technological developments included in the new Volvo FH truck Series. Lastly, we summarise the latest forest engineering research included in the Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering.

Now to the newsletter!
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Using tethered equipment for steep-slope operations

FPInnovations has produced a publication which reviews tethered logging equipment used across the world.

The review was carried out due to the slope handling capabilities of modern machines being greater than the limits currently contained in safety codes. For example, many felling machines can operate on 60% slopes, while the current British Columbia regulations restrict ground based logging equipment to 40%. A method to increase the slope handling ability of logging machines is to tether them using a winch and cable to anchors such as stumps or stationery equipment. This can improve machine stability, traction and mobility. Soil disturbance can also be reduced.

The FPInnovations article, compiled by Brad Sutherland (Internal Report 2012-08-20), is titled “Review of tethered equipment for steep-slope operations”. The document lists the currently available felling and extraction equipment that uses traction aid winches. The machine make and model, type of machine, manufacturer, size, slope limit and winch configuration are provided. The document then goes on to describe the status of tethered logging machine developments in New Zealand, Germany, Italy, USA and Norway. The document concludes with a discussion on the applicability of current tethered equipment to British Columbia. For more information, contact Jack MacDonald at jack.macdonald@fpinnovations.ca .

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Determining the logging residue generated from various harvesting operations

The CRC for Forestry has carried out research that assessed harvesting residues from Australian logging sites.

The research examined how different harvesting methods affected the quality and quantity of logging-residue. Sixteen sites across various Australian states were assessed. Harvesting methods investigated included cut-to-length (CTL) and full tree, and the species logged were Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus nitens or Pinus radiata. The weight of residue was determined and the percentage of each component calculated.

The results showed that more logging residue remained on-site after CTL harvesting than full tree. Full tree systems left very little slash on site due to all above ground biomass being extracted. The species being logged did not have much influence on the amount of residue being left. Branches and stemwood comprised the largest component of infield pine logging residue, while leaves, twigs and branches formed the largest component of eucalypt residues. There was significant variation in the amount of residue left on each site, but the CTL systems clearly retained higher infield volumes of logging residue.

The title of the study was “Assessment of harvesting residues from different harvesting operation sites in Australia”, and was published as Bulletin 31 (September 2012). The author was Mohammad Ghaffariyan. For more information, contact Mohammad at ghafari901@yahoo.com or visit the CRC website at http://www.crcforestry.com.au/research/programme-three/index.html  

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New publication on forest harvesting practices in Virginia

Background is provided on Virginia’s logging operations, including production levels of certain operations.

The 2012 publication was produced by the Virginia Cooperative Extension (Virginia Tech and Virginia State University) and is based on a 2009 survey of Virginia’s loggers. It is titled “Forest Harvesting in Virginia: Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations”. The authors are S Barrett, J Chandler, C Bolding and J Munsell. There are an estimated 900 logging businesses in Virginia. The publication is structured as follows:

  • Introduction – describing Virginia’s forest resources, forest products and logging industry.
  • Overview of forest harvesting operations – The basic logging activities of felling, skidding, processing, loading and timber transport are described. The survey results for the different types and quantities of activities and operations are included.
  • Products produced on logging operations – Results are presented by pine clearcut, pine thinning, hardwood clearcut and hardwood selective or partial cut. The various products produced are then summarised.
  • Forest harvesting operations across Virginia – Operational detail is provided for the different geographical areas of Virginia (Mountains, Piedmont, Coastal Plain and the entire state). This includes average production per crew and number of workers per crew.
Source: http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/ANR/ANR-5/ANR-5.html  

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New developments from Volvo Trucks sure to impress log hauliers

New transmission and safety technologies have been introduced to improve driveability and fuel consumption.

The new Volvo I-Torque driveline has a new automated gearbox to deliver 2800 Nm of torque at low engine revs, resulting in one of the quieter trucks on the road. Lower revs also means less fuel is used and less friction in the engine. The D13 engine is most efficient between 900 and 1200 revs per minute. To achieve the high power output, the new D13 Euro 6 engine, which produces 460 hp/2800 Nm, is combined with a new dual-clutch version of the automated I-Shift transmission. With the I-Shift 2 dual-clutch system there is no torque interruption, not even during gear changes. This results in the engine being able to operate in a narrow optimised band, producing faster acceleration and good driveability. I-Torque reduces fuel consumption by up to 4%.

Volvo Trucks has also developed “Collision Warning with Emergency Brake”, which is an advanced braking system equipped with early collision warning to prevent accidents caused by driver inattention. The system combines a radar and camera that work together to identify and monitor vehicles moving in front of the truck. It detects a vehicle that the truck will hit at its current speed and alerts the driver via a constant red light in the windscreen. If there is no reaction from the driver, the red light starts to flash and a beeping sound is generated. If there is still no reaction, the system activates the emergency brake and tries to stop the vehicle. The system can prevent a collision with a moving target at speeds of up to 70 km/hr (43 miles/hr). The system is available on the new Volvo FH Series. Emergency breaking systems will be a legal requirement in Europe by November 2015.

Collision tests have shown that the Volvo FH cab is safer than any previous Volvo cab. Laser welding of steel panels makes it possible to join two flat panels prior to moulding, resulting in each panel being customised for thickness and quality. The cab is also larger due to the A-pillars being more upright and the door and floor structure has been altered to offer more protection in an emergency. The windscreen used to be the emergency exit, but a roof hatch now serves this function. The Volvo FH also has larger windows and a clearer instrument panel, allowing the driver to spend more time watching the road. A comfortable bed ensures the driver is well rested, and other active systems such as Lane Keeping Support (LKS), Lane Changing Support (LCS), Adaptive Cruise Control and Driver Alert Support (DAS) assist the driver further. A Front Under-run Protection System (FUPS) prevents passenger cars from becoming wedged under the truck in fatal collisions. Protecting the driver and truck from criminals has also featured strongly during design improvements. Source: www.volvotrucks.com

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June 2012 edition of CJFE packed with interesting logging research results

Many practical research articles have direct relevance to current logging operations. All research articles are free-for-download.

The June 2012 edition of the Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering (Volume 33, Issue 1) has been published. Logging-on has listed some of the more applied research articles below, but it is worthwhile to access the index for this volume as many other interesting topics are also included. Selected article titles are as follows:

  • Application of a sugarcane harvester for harvesting of willow trees aimed at short rotation forestry: an experimental case study in Japan (Yoshioka, Sugiura and Inoue).
  • Mechanised harvesting of eucalypt coppice for biomass production using high mechanisation level (Picchio, Sirna, Sperandio, Spina and Verani).
  • Productivity and profitability of forest machines in the harvesting of normal and overgrown willow plantations (Fulvio, Bergstrom, Kons and Nordfjell).
  • Productivity of processing hardwood from coppice forest (Suchomel, Spinelli and Magagnotti).
  • Estimation of machinery market size for industrial and energy wood harvesting in Leningrad region (Gerasimov and Karjalainen).
  • Productivity models for operational planning of timber forwarding in Croatia (Stankic, Porsinsky, Tomasic, Tonkovic and Frntic).
  • Energy use and emissions from the operational phase of a medium distance cableway system (Klvac, Fischer and Skoupy).
  • Potential mechanisms for co-operation between transportation entrepreneurs and customers: A case study of regional entrepreneurship in Finland (Palander, Vainikka and Yletyinen).
  • Improving accuracy in earthworks volume estimation for proposed forest roads using a high-resolution digital elevation model (Contreras, Arecana and Chung).
  • Planning forest accessibility with a low ecological impact (Iordache, Nita and Clinciu).
Access full copies of each article at http://crojfe.sumfak.hr/download/dwnld_33-1.html  

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Newsflash – What’s happening in Forest Engineering?

Reducing forestry transport costs with FastTRUCK
The CRC for Forestry in Australia has produced software for optimising roundwood transport. They have produced a bulletin (No. 30) that explains how FastTRUCK works and includes a case study to show the benefits. For more information contact luke.mirowski@utas.edu.au or visit http://www.crcforestry.com.au/research/programme-three/index.html  

New Case 570 N XT Loader/Tool Carrier
The loader features superior fuel economy, productivity, breakout force and reach. It has a turbocharged engine that produces 58 kW (78 hp) of power, while achieving a 5% fuel efficiency improvement. It has an operating weight of 5,851 kg (12,898 lb), breakout force of 41,239 N (9,271 lb) and a hinge pin height of 3.41 m (11 ft 3 in). Source: www.casece.com  

RoadEng users take note – Softree Version 6 released
Version 6 includes improvements in the areas of coordinate transformations, mapping, terrain modelling, templates, cross sections, design and reporting. Focus has also been placed on simplicity, compatibility, flexibility and speed. Source: www.softree.com  

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Equipment manufacturer and dealer movements

Canadian news – Woodbridge Equipment Parts Inc is the new distributor of TrackGrip
TrackGrip is a steel ground gripping device that bolts directly onto to the tracks of excavators, dozers and ASV type machines. Enquiries can be directed to Michael Knight at sales@trackgrip.ca  

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Recent research publications

“The economics of short rotation coppice in Germany”
Occurring in the Biomass and Bioenergy Journal, Vol. 45 (2012), pages 27 to 40. Authors: R Faasch and G Patenaude.
Access at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953412001833  

“The effects of cording, timber load and soil gravel content on soil compaction during timber harvesting on moist soils”
Occurring in the Australian Forestry Journal, Vol. 75 (2), 2012, page 107. Authors: Whitford, Stoneman, Seymour, Murray, Eaton and Tanimoto. Access at http://www.forestry.org.au/ifa/c/c3-ifa.asp?ID=1893

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